Adult education for Samis

A report for UNESCO, by Svein Lund, Nordic Sami Institute

To first chapter

4. Needs and target groups of adult education

 This survey alone is not enough to give any firm conclusions on what the needs are and what should be the target groups in a possible future plan for adult education for Samis. This is only meant as a first base for discussion. Decisions must be based on both further research, and on a democratic process in the Sami society, where the people who need and want education are heard, and with the Sami Parliaments making the decisions.
 We will also stress that this chapter is mainly built on an evaluation of conditions in Norway. Probably much of this will also be valid for the other countries, but we have not enough information to draw any conclusions here.

 4.1. Needs

 There has never been made any survey of the needs of adult education for Samis. But we can conclude that the needs are huge. We will mention acouple of important areas:

 4.1.1. Language

 A result of the politics of assimilation through many years, today there is only a minority of the people with a Sami background who can speak the Sami language. Among the Sami language speakers the great majority of adults are illiterates in their own language; they can barely read the Sami language and not write in it. There are far away from sufficient number of people with higher education in Sami to meet the needs for teachers, course leaders, language consultants, interpreters and translators.
 In addition many people need better mastering of the state language and English to function adequately in the modern society which they also are a part of.
 There is also a need for Sami speakers who have skills in other languages, especially Finnish (for Norway and Sweden), Russian and Spanish.

 4.1.2. Culture

 The transmission of Sami culture between the generations has in many areas almost ceased. Most adult Samis have got their education in a school which has rejected the Samis culture and as a result they have received poor knowledge of this culture. In order to transfere and further develop theculture it might be necessary with special educational programmes stressing Sami cultural knowledge in areas like:
* cultural sides of reindeer husbandry, agriculture, fisheries and use of nature.
* duodji
* habits and customs, popular beliefs and popular medicin
* music, art, litterature
* Sami cultural history, population history and political history
In 1999 there is made and authorized a curriculum in Sami cultural knowledgefor secondary school. This might also be used as a base for adult education,but it is important that this education will be given in a practical manner, not just as pure theory.

4.1.3. Vocational education

Within vocational craftmanships, like carpentry, mechanics, hairdressery, plumber, cooking and electrician, there are in Sami areas relatively few who have full education (craft or master certificate). That is one of the reasons why there are quite a few independent enterprices in Sami areas.Therefore it should be arranged more AMO-courses within the biggest professions and made arrangements so that more crafters and workers can take a craft certificate.

4.1.4. Computer technology

There have been some courses in basic computer work and there will surely be a need to continue with these courses. At the same time there is a great lack of Sami speaking and writing people with higher competence within the field of computer technology. Solving the problems of using Sami in computers should neither be left to people who don't know the language, nor to people who don't master computer technology. Building up such competence could also be a basis for new jobs.

4.1.5. Higher education

In most professions demanding education from university or college, a great part of the employees in Sami areas come from outside, and they are often lacking sufficient knowledge of Sami language and culture. The establishment of Sami College has only to a very limited extent managed to improve this situation, among others because the college has very limited amount of studies. During many years there has been a deficit of higher education among Samis. The youth who apply for higher education are not able to fill the whole gap.Therefore it will also for future be a need for study competence courses for adults.

4.2. Target groups

4.2.1. Gender and education

In the Sami society women traditionally have had a relative strong and independent position. When the first Samis who got any education all were boys, it is probably mainly due to the general attitudes in society at thattime. For a long time the women did not learn to read and write in Sami and hardly in any other language. Not until after 1970 there has been female authors writing in Sami language. With the modernisation of agriculture, reindeer husbandry and fisheries and decay in combination livelihoods, women were to a greater extent pressed out of the primary industries. The politics of the state also contributed to this, by not accepting women as independent professionals in reindeer husbandry and agriculture. This led to that women to a great extent searched for work outside of the primary industries, while the girls searched for higher education. The boys, however, tried to cling to the primary industries as long as possible, or they were staying at home without any professional education and without permanent work. This was especially the situation in Kárášjohka, where the secondary school only had "girls' education"; gymnasium line, trade- and office and health- and social care. These were entirely dominated by girls.

While the problem many places in the world has been that girls don't get enough education, it has in great parts of the Sami areas rather been opposite.The last few years there have been made several attempts to motivate boys for searching secondary education. In Kárášjohka, which earlier did not have any typical "boys' lines", it is started lines of building and mechanics. In Guovdageaidnu underemployed youth, mainly from reindeer husbandry families, have been contacted to motivate them for going to schools.This has only partly succeeded, because the secondary school did not manage to give an offer which fitted to their situation of life. And when the schoolhas managed to construct such an offer, it has not been started because of lack of money or rigid rules.

In most of the adult education courses women are in majority. In both the courses of the Sami secondary school in Guovdageaidnu and those of the Samistudy organization, 2/3 or more of the participants have been women.

Women are, however, clearly underrepresented in some areas; in the highestlevels of universities and among people who establish own companies.

In vocational subjects there is a sharp division between professions chosenby men and those chosen by women. Here the situation is approximately the same in the Sami area as in the rest of Norway.

There have been arranged establishers' courses for women, but not especially for Sami areas. There are now plans of developing special courses for womenin the readjusting municipalities, in cooperation between SUFUR and the Sami womens organization Sáráhkká.

4.2.2. Short time educated

An important target group is the people who have less than 9 years of school, or who have finished 9 years without acquiring enough knowledge to start secondary education. This group has the greatest need of adult education,but they seldom take the initiative themselves to get education. They are often afraid of starting school because they fear that they will not manage it. Adult ecucation courses are seldom adjusted for this target group. Often the courses have teachers who have little background to understand the situationof the participants and teach them on their own premises. Many of these teachers don't speak the Sami language, they don't know well the Sami culture and way of thinking, and very few of them have education in adult pedagogics.

The shortest education have the elders who because of the second world war and the long time of reconstruction got no or almost no education. Many of them are illiterate both in Sami and Norwegian. Through many years they have been fighting for education and compensation for lost education, but all that they have got are short alphabetisation courses. The Norwegian Statehas so far rejected all their demands and applications for compensation.

4.2.3. Reindeer husbandry

Samis living on reindeer husbandry are among the professions in Norway with the lowest formal education. The education connected to the Readjustment programme, however, does not refer to them, because they could only get access to education by leaving the reindeer husbandry completely. As for the still active reindeer herders, the authorities have pointed to the Reindeer husbandry agreement, but there was not much support to get.

There is a need for common education, but also education connected to thecomplicated rules which reindeer herders have to follow in the modern and very regulated trade, which reindeer husbandry has become today. The adult education for reindeer herders must be adopted to the seasons of the husbandry, for instance concentrated courses in winter. There is also a need for courses teaching about reindeer husbandry for people in administration, politicians and others who take part in decisions concerning reindeer husbandry.

Also other people employed in primary industries and small trades fall outside of the financing arrangements for adult education. They can't afford to paythemselves for education. An important step would have been if they could get paid leave when studying. In the new competence reform there is an intention to cover this group, but funding is not yet secured.

4.3. Availability

Formally Samis in Norway have the same rights to get adult education and other education as other Norwegian citizens. But if this right should bea reality is up to where courses are arranged, in which language they are conducted, and if Sami culture and local conditions is taken into account when the courses are planned and carried out.

It is a great problem for those seeking education that the adult education system in Norway is so fragmented and difficult to comprehend. "The customers"don't know the institutions offering education, and often they are lacking the necessary linguistical and cultural abilities to communicate with each other.

There has to a great extent been carried out courses within or close to Samiareas. But so far adult education has mainly been carried out on national Norwegian conditions, and Samis therefore have not had the same right to adult education as the majority population.

 5. Organizing and responsibility

5.1. Norway

There are many different institutions engaged in adult education in Norway,and there are not clear areas of responsibility: It is very much up to initiatives from each institution. There is therefore no programme which analyses adult education needs within any area and develop plans according to that analysis. This is not at least the situation for adult education for Samis, in Sami area and in Sami subjects. Central authorities don't seem to see the special conditions which are connected to adult education for Samis, both regarding the needs of adult education and that it is necessary to adapt this education to Sami language and culture. In the Ministry of Education it seems that there is both quite restricted competence and interest in this field.

The Sami institutions which should be responsible in this field, like the Sami Parliament, Sami Educational Council and Sami Institute, have so far concentrated mainly on kindergarten, primary school and college education.They have very much neglected secondary school and especially adult education.None of these institutions have employed people with Sami adult education as a main field of activity. The only ones which one may say have Sami adult education as their main work, are the course inspectors at the Sami secondaryschools, the adult educational coordinators in four Sami municipalities (½job in each municipality) and partly the workers of the Sami language centres. But none of them have the authority or capacity to do any research or superior planning in this field.

An increasing problem is the privatisation of the adult education. The countieshave very much withdrawn from the responsibility and left it to local resource centres, which have to find themselves the money they need to arrange courses.In parts of the country with big industries and companies, these may pay for some courses. However in Sami areas the trades are usually small and relatively poor, and there are many self-employed people. They cannot manage to pay for their education. Therefore the resource centres here are only able to arrange courses paid by public institutions. The public institutions mainly take care of their own employees and for those who are unemployed.The self-employed and the employees in the private sector therefore often fall outside.

5.2. Sweden

Sweden has, as opposed to Norway, a clear main actor in the field of adult education for Samis, The Sami Educational Centre. This may be an advantage,but the question is if this responsibility is more than the school can manage to fulfil, both from an economical, organizational and geographical point of view. It may also work the way that other institutions, which should have adult education for Samis as a naturally integrated part of their work, push this away and over to Samarnas Utbildningscentrum. It looks like this might be the case both regarding central and local institutions.

It seems like none of the central institutions, like the Ministry of Education or the National School Board, is at all concerned about this. It neither looks like there is much initiative from the Sami Parliament.

5.3. Finland

Finland has, like Sweden, one main actor of Sami adult education. It seems like the Sami Educational Centre meets this task quite well. They have aquite decentralized organization, and both the Sami population and the actual geografical area is smaller than in the two other countries. On the other hand side there are also other educational institutions and organizations working in Sami areas, but without making Sami language and culture a central part of their work. There is also, like in the two other countries, lackof a political strategy of Sami adult education, both from the Sami Parliament and from national and regional authorities.

 5.4. All-Sami

It is many years since there has come any all-Sami initiative concerning adult education. We would like to hope that this report may contribute to that all-Sami organs like the Sami Council and Sami Institute again will put adult education on their agenda.

 6. Summary

This survey is done by Nordic Sami Institute, as part of UNESCO’sregistration of adult education for indigenous peoples around the world. The questionnaire of UNESCO is sent to a lot of institutions in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. Some institutions are followed up by telephone contact and a few are visited. As the ressources for this work have been restricted and the rate of answers has been quite low, we have been forced to give most priority to Norway and omit Russia.

The Sami people is indigenous in northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Kola Peninsula in Russia. The population is between 50000 and 100000, andthey live to a great extent mixed with the majority populations. Only in a few municipalities in Norway and one municipality in Finland, the Samisare still in majority. The Sami language is a Finno-Ugrian language, it has10 main dialects, which are not all mutually understandable. Because of an assimilationist policy of all the four states, a great part of the Sami population no longer speak Sami language.

Norway, Sweden and Finland have a quite simple school system, where it isclear which level of administration is responsible for each level of school.This does not, however, refer to adult education. For adult education the responsibility is rather fragmented. Especially in Norway there are a lot of actors engaged in adult education, and many provisions depend on a cooperation between several institutions.

Because of a policy of assimilation through a long time, the adult Sami population has not got an education built on their own language and culture.The assimilationist policy is now officially abolished, but the results will remain for a long time, and give a great need of adult education especially organized for Samis.

At least half of the Sami population do not speak Sami, and most of the Samispeakers don’t write their language. The population of the Sami areas have in general lower educational level than country average, especially among elder people. Unemployment is also higher in many Sami areas. As the educational level in the Sami areas have been relatively low, jobs which require higher education have often been filled by people who come from outside and have limited knowledge of Sami language and culture.

The adult education for Samis will have several aims:
n to give a professional education, to qualify for jobs and reduce unemployment.
n to give people in different jobs and professions improved qualifications and update for their work
n to keep and revitalize Sami language and culture
These aims should not be seen isolated from each other. Also the education in professions and other subjects should be built on Sami language and culture.

Conventions and resolutions of international organizations like ILO and UNESCOpledge that Samis and other indigenous peoples have the right to an adult education based on their own language and their own culture. In spite of this, the educational authorities in the countries where the Samis live have no policy for a Sami adult education. Institutions which want to arrange adult education for Samis and with a Sami content, often have to struggle with bad economy and a set of strict rules forcing them to follow a national curriculum. The result is that a great part of the adult education which is offered to Samis, is built on the languages and cultures of the majority society. The teaching is in general in the majority language and teacher shave often restricted knowledge of Sami conditions. Special adult education programmes have been introduced to lead Samis from reindeer herding into other professions. But no programme has been introduced to strengthen the traditional Sami livelihoods.

The Samis in Norway, Sweden and Finland have a Sami Parliament in each country. In addition there are a lot of independent Sami organizations (NGOs). Themain Sami organizations form a Sami Council, which represent the Sami people in international fora.
The Sami parliaments and the Sami Council have given very general statements about the Samis’ rights to adult education, but they have only to asmall extent been able to follow this up with concrete initiatives.
The Sami education in the three countries is now partly governed by the Samiparliaments or institutions which they have appointed. But the obligation to follow common national rules and national curriculum, and the fact thatthe budget is decided by central authorities, make this self-government often more formal than real. The common Sami educational organs have only to asmall extent engaged in adult education, and nobody has ever tried to make an overall Sami adult education plan.

There are some Sami schools on each level; primary, secondary and higher. The system of governing them is quite differentiated, and there is oftena conflict between Sami institutions and central authorities about who should decide. However the majority of the Sami pupils and students attend«normal» national institutions, based on the language and cultureof the majority society. This refers both to ordinary education and adulteducation.
In the Sami educational institutions, the education should principally bebased on Sami language and culture. This is however not always the case, caused by among others by lack of qualified teachers, lack of schoolbooksin Sami language and that often there are some pupils who don’t understand Sami. They are also, especially on secondary level, forced to follow a nationalcurriculum which gives little space for the Sami knowledge within each subjector profession.

The ordinary educational institutions do usually show quite little interes tin integrating Sami knowledge and Sami culture in the studies they offer.They may give courses in Sami language when it is required, but the rest of their courses have seldom any Sami content.

There has in the 1990’s been arranged quite a lot of adult education in Sami language in different levels. However the need is not covered, and the economical conditions are not satisfying. Samis who have lost their language because of the former policy of the governments, still have to take a study loan to learn their own language. This shows that even if the states declare that the policy of Norwegianisation, Finnification and Swedification now is abolished, the states have not been willing to pay for the harm whichthis policy has lead to. 1.1.2000 the Norwegian prime minister declared that his government will establish a fund for compensation for Norwegianization.This is an important signal. But the tasks within adult education for Samis are so great, that the sums about which they have talked so far, will only be a very modest start.

7. Litterature and sources

7.1. Printed litterature

The titles are here given in the language in which we have got it. Most of it is only edited in this language / these languages. Some of the titles in Norwegian may also be available in Sami and some of the titles in Sami may also be edited in Norwegian and Finnish. We have tried to give the title in English, where there exists an English version. But as this list shows, there is not published much information in English about adult education for Samis.

7.1.1. International

Blindh, Inga Britt Rapport från internationell vuxenutbildningskonferens i Paris oktober 1982 Malmö 1983
Confintea Adult Education. The Hamburg Declaration. The agenda for the future UNESCO 1997
Council of Europe Permanent Education. The Basis and Essentials Strasbourg 1976
Darnell / Hoem (ed.) Taken to Extremes. Education in the Far North Scandinavian University Press 1996
King, Linda (ed.) Reflecting visions. New Perspectives on Adult Educationfor Indigenous Peoples Unesco - UIE 1998
OECD Recurrent Education: A Strategy for Life-long Learning Paris 1973
OECD Overcoming exclusion through adult learning OECD 1999
UNESCO 1997 CONFINTEA documentation UNESCO 1999
UNESCO Konvensjon mot diskriminering i undervisning UNESCO 1981

7.1.2. Norden / All-Sami

Dieđot Oahpahusáššiidseminára Sámi Instituhtta 1977
Hirvonen, Vuokko Sámeeatnama jienat DAT 1999
Jåma, Ingegerd Blind Samisk vuxenutbildningsprojekt i det sydsamiskaprojektområdet Sámi Insstituhtta 1985
NORD För jobb och framtid på Nordkalotten Ôvertorneå1998
Nordisk Ministerråd Folkbildning och vuxenundervisning i NordenKøbenhavn 1997
Nordisk Ministerråd Livslang læring - fra ide til virkelighed København 1997
Nordisk Ministerråd Guldtavlene i græsset. Livslang læringfor alle København 1995
Sámeráđđi Sámi oahpahus jaskuvlapolitihkkálaš prográmma / Sámisk utdannings-og skolepolitisk program Sámeráđđi 1989
Sami Parliaments The UN International Decade of Indigenous People - CommonObjectives and Joint Measures of the Sami Parliaments 1997?

7.1.3. Norway

Aikio, Aimo Rávesolbmuid pedagogihkkamáŋggakultuvralaš birrasis Sámi allaskuvla 1999
Arbeidsmarkedsetaten i Finnmark årsmelding 1998 1999
Balto, Asta Sámi bajásgeassin rievdá / Samisk barneoppdragelse i endring Davvi Girji 1997
Bergland, Einar: Kunnskap og kompetanse i Indre Finnmark SUFUR 1993
Bergland, Einar Reindrift, omstilling og identitet UIO 1998
Edvardsen m.fl. Evaluering av Finnmark som egen utdanningsregion SUFUR 1996
Finnmark fylkeskommune Rammeplan for omstillingsarbeidet i Indre Finnmark1993-1997 Finnmark fylkeskommune 1993
Finnmark fylkeskommune Regionalt utviklingsprogramm for Indre Finnmark 1999Finnmark fylkeskommune 1999
Haga, Dagny SUFUR fra år 2000 Finnmarksforskning 1999
Hoem, Anton Makt og kunnskap Universitetsforl. 1976
Kallerud, Bitten Mål for voksenopplæring Norsk voksenped instititt1978
KUF The Competence Reform in Norway 1998
NOU Dokumentasjon av kunnskaper og ferdigheter KUF 1985:26
NOU Livslang læring KUF 1986: 23
NOU Ny kompetanse KUF 1997:25
NOU Vaksenopplæring for alle KUF 1972:41
Ot.prp Om lov om voksenopplæring KUF 1975-76:7
Samediggi Utskrift av møtebok: Sak 19/91 Videregåendeopplæring for samer 1991
Sámediggi Sámedikki mearrádusat skuvla- jaoahpahusáššiin 1989-1995 Sámediggi 1996
Sámi álbmotallaskuvla Sámi álbmotallaskuvla -some brochures and presentations
Sámi allaskuvla Studieplan Halvårsenhet i voksenpedagogikk 10vt.1993
Sámi joatkkaskuvllaid stivra Sámi máhttu - sámi joatkkaoahpu vuođđun / Samisk kunnskap - grunnlaget for samiskvideregående opplæring Guovdageaidnu 1999
SJS Ressurssenter. Kurs- og oppdragsvirksomhet ved de samiske videregående skoler i Karasjok og Kautokeino 1997
SJSBS Rapporta Oanehit gursafálaldat luonddudoallu vuođđogursaplánaid vuođul 1995
St.meld Kompetansereformen KUF 1997-98:42
St.meld Om lov om voksenopplæring KUF 1980-81:72
St.meld Om voksenopplæring. En del prinsippielle spørsmålog prioriteringer KUF 1984-85:43
St.meld Utdanning og arbeid KUF 1980-81: 45
St.prp Om voksenopplæring KUF 1964-65:92
Statistisk sentralbyrå Aktuell utdanningsstatistikk: Voksenopplæringi Norge. Nøkkeltall 1998 1998
Steinfjell, Mats Ansvar for voksenopplæring i kommunene Karasjok ogKautokeino SJSBS 1998
Steinfjell, Mats Livsveiledning. Personlig utvikling og motivasjon som grunnlagfor yrke og skolegang. Prosjektbeskrivelse SJSBS 1997
Stortinget Lov om voksenopplæring 1976 (1997)
Stølen, Gerd Voksenopplæring i Finnmark SUFUR 1996
SU-Finnmark Virksomhetsplan 1999 SU-Finnmark 1998
SUFUR Guovdageainnu-, Kárášjoga ja Deanu suohkanarámmáplánat oahpaheapmái ja oahpahussii 1993-1997SUFUR 1994
SUFUR årsrapport 1994 for utdanning og opplæring iOmstillingsprogrammet for Indre Finnmark SUFUR 1995
SUFUR årsrapport 1995 - Omstillingsprogrammet SUFUR 1996
SUFUR årsrapport 1996 - Omstillingsprogrammet SUFUR 1997
SUFUR årsrapport 1997 - Omstillingsprogrammet SUFUR 1998
SUFUR årsrapport 1998 - Omstillingsprogrammet SUFUR 1999
SU-Troms Voksenopplæringsprosjekt i Nord-Troms «Tre stammersmøte i fire kommuner» SU-Troms 1997
SVSRS Prosjektbeskrivelse - Ođđa bálgát Guovdageaidnu1998
SVSRS Stipend og lån til kursdeltakere i prosjekt Ođđabálgát Guovdageaidnu 1999
UniReg UniReg Indre Finnmark
UniReg Universitetenes registreringssentral Kautokeino
Universitetet i Tromsø Etter- og videreutdanning. (Studiekatalog)UNIKOM, UIT 1999
VOFO årsmelding 1997 1998

7.1.4. Sweden

Johansson, Henning Samerna och sameundervisningen i Sverige Umeåuniversitet 1977
Blindh, Inga Britt Samerna i Stockholm En undersökning om utflyttadesamers kulturella behov Sámi Instituhtta 1978
Jåma, Ingegerd Blind Samisk vuxenutbildningsprojekt i det sydsamiskaprojektområdet Sámi Instituhtta 1983?
Luleå tekn.univ. Studiekatalog 1999
Umeå universitet Studiekatalog 1999

7.1.5. Finland

Opestushallitus / Utbildn.styrelsen Aikuiskoulutuslinjat / Utbildning förvuxna 1998
Utbildn.styrelsen Allmänna språkexamina 1998
Korkeakoski, Esko Saamelaisten koulutuksen tila perskoulussa ja lukiossa Opetushallitus 1997
Sarmaja, Heikki Utsjoen saamelaiset. Aikuisväestön koulutus-tarpeistaja -toiveista sekä elämisen malleista Sámi Instituhtta 1984
SAKK/SOG Toimintakertomus 1995 Anár 1996
SAKK/SOG Toimintakertomus 1996 Anár 1997
SAKK/SOG Toimintakertomus 1997 Anár 1998
SAKK/SOG Toimintakertomus 1998 Anár 1999
SAKK/SOG Sámi oahpahusguovddáš(presentašuvdnagihppa) Anár 1999
Aikio-Puiskari, Ulla Instruction of and in the Sami language in Finland FinnishSami Parliament 1997

7.2. Internet

7.2.1. International

UNESCO - Institute of Education
International Council of Adult Education '
Confintea - Rapport fra den norske delegasjonen
Unesco red book of engangered languages

7.2.2. Norden / All-Sami

Nordisk Samisk Institutt
An introduction to the Sami people
Interreg åarjel Samien
Saami Web
Sami Nisson Forum www.home.2ci/leneant

7.2.3. Norway

Den samiske folkehøgskole
Kyrkje- utdannings- og forskningsdepartementet
Nordisk Samisk Institutt
Norske Samers Riksforbund
Samisk høgskole
Samisk språkråd
Samisk utdanningsråd
Universitetet i Tromsø - Senter for samiske studier

7.2.4. Sweden

Sametinget www.
Samernas Utbildningscentrum
Bokenskolan i Jokkmokk: Samiskt spesialutformat
Umeå universitet - Samiska institutionen

7.2.5. Finland

The regular education system of Finland
Det öppna universitetet presenterer sig
University of Oulu - Departement of Finnish, Saami ..
KTOL - MAIF Medborgar och arbetarinstitutens förb.
Suomen kansan-opistoyhdistys(Folkhøgskolor i FInland)
Sámedikki skuvlen ja oahppomateriáladoaimmahat
Suohpan - Sami Students Association

More articles about education or Sami affairs

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Other reportsfrom UNESCO Institute of Education about adult education for indigenouspeoples.